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我国全面实施市场准入负面清单制度 真正实现“非禁即入”

    经中共中央、国务院批准,国家发展改革委、商务部25日发布《市场准入负面清单(2018年版)》,这标志我国全面实施市场准入负面清单制度,负面清单以外的行业、领域、业务等,各类市场主体皆可依法平等进入。

      “全面实施市场准入负面清单制度是党中央为加快完善社会主义市场经济体制作出的重大决策部署。”在当天举行的新闻发布会上,国家发展改革委体改司司长徐善长表示,全面实施市场准入负面清单制度对于构建统一开放、竞争有序的现代市场体系,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,将产生重大而深远的影响。

    

    

      一项重大制度创新

      “为什么说这是一项重大制度创新?因为这在国际上没有可以参照的先例,体现了党中央深化改革的决心和担当。”徐善长表示,建立全国统一的市场准入负面清单制度,明确要求实行“全国一张清单”,有助于深化“放管服”改革,促进政府职能转变,推动更大力度、更高层次、更广范围的改革开放。

      “将负面清单的概念从外资准入管理引入到国内经济治理中,是一项重大制度创新。”上海社会科学院法学所特聘研究员李建伟说。

      国家发展改革委体改司副司长万劲松表示,市场准入负面清单制度遵循“非禁即入”理念,其核心在于通过列出禁止和限制投资经营行业、领域、业务等,实现了清单之外市场主体依法平等进入,有利于市场这只“看不见的手”在市场准入环节发挥决定性作用。

      对于市场主体而言,市场准入负面清单制度全面实施后,无论是国企、民企还是混合所有制企业,无论是内资、外资还是大企业或中小企业,都一视同仁地享有同等的市场准入条件待遇,实现了“规则平等、权利平等、机会平等”。

      “有了这份全国统一的市场准入负面清单,我们可以一目了然地知晓什么不能做、什么需要审批许可、什么可以自主决定,减少了投资上的盲目性,增强了对未来发展的预期。”山东浩海投资有限公司负责人说。

      对于政府管理者而言,市场准入负面清单制度的全面实施,将有利于政府加强事中事后监管,推动相关审批体制、投资体制、监管机制、社会信用体系和激励惩戒机制改革,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化。

      新版清单更“瘦身”

      与2016年负面清单试点版相比,《市场准入负面清单(2018年版)》的突出特点就是更加“瘦身”、更具系统性和可操作性。

      徐善长表示,此次修订从是否符合清单定位要求、是否合法有效、表述是否准确等方面对清单事项和管理措施逐条评估,并作进一步优化整合,做到该减的坚决减,该留的科学留,该增的合理增。据统计,2018年版负面清单共列禁止和许可类事项151项,总体上比《清单(试点版)》原有的328项减少了177项,压减幅度达54%。

      据悉,清单主体包括“禁止准入类”和“许可准入类”两大类,共151个事项、581条具体管理措施。

      其中,禁止准入类事项4项,分别是法律法规明确设立的与市场准入相关的禁止性规定,《产业结构调整指导目录》中禁止投资和禁止新建的项目,以及“禁止违规开展金融相关经营活动”“禁止违规开展互联网相关经营活动”。对于禁止类事项,市场主体不得进入,行政机关不予审批。

      许可准入类事项共147项,涉及国民经济行业20个分类中的18个行业128个事项,《政府核准的投资项目目录》事项10项,《互联网市场准入禁止许可目录》事项6项,信用惩戒等其他事项3项。对于许可准入类事项,由市场主体提出申请,行政机关依法依规作出是否予以准入的决定,或由市场主体依照政府规定的准入条件和准入方式合规进入。

      今年6月份,国家发展改革委、商务部对外发布了《外商投资准入特别管理措施(负面清单)(2018年版)》。如何看待这两份负面清单?

      “当前,我国对外资采取的是准入前国民待遇加负面清单管理模式。上述两个清单各有定位、功能不同。”商务部条法司副巡视员叶军表示,外商投资准入负面清单仅针对境外投资者,属于外商投资管理范畴;市场准入负面清单是适用于境内外投资者的一致性管理措施,是对各类市场主体市场准入管理的统一要求,属于国民待遇的一部分。外商投资准入负面清单之外的领域,按照内外资一致原则实施管理。

      “三个机制”确保落地

      全面实行市场准入负面清单制度是一项系统性改革工程,需要进一步建立健全与之相适应的准入机制、事中事后监管、社会信用激励惩戒、商事登记等各种制度和机制。对此,徐善长表示,将着力健全完善“三个机制”,确保负面清单制度落地实施。

      一是建立清单信息公开机制。国家发展改革委已会同商务部初步建立市场准入负面清单信息公开机制,通过相关门户网站、媒体等平台,向社会公开2018年版负面清单的有关内容信息,便于市场主体实时查询,不断提升市场准入政策透明度和负面清单使用便捷性。

      二是建立清单动态调整机制。按照有关工作安排,研究制定清单动态调整工作方案,明确和细化清单调整频次、方式、流程,探索建立市场准入负面清单调整第三方评估机制。

      三是完善与行政审批事项的衔接机制。健全完善与市场准入负面清单制度相适应的审批体制,确保在清单之内的事项管得住、管得好,便利高效,确保清单之外无审批事项,实现各类市场主体依法平等进入清单以外的行业、领域、业务等。

      万劲松表示,在全国统一的市场准入负面清单制度建立之前,一些地区和部门大胆闯、大胆试,出台了一些以负面清单为名的管理措施,开展了积极探索,为制定全国统一的市场准入负面清单也积累了很好的经验。为确保市场准入负面清单制度的统一性、严肃性和权威性,行业性、领域性、区域性负面清单将逐步纳入全国统一的市场准入负面清单中。

      此外,考虑到我国地区发展差异大,允许省级人民政府在全国统一的市场准入负面清单基础上,根据本地区资源要素禀赋、主体功能定位、产业比较优势、生态环境影响等因素,提出调整市场准入负面清单的建议,报国务院批准后实施。为此,2018年版负面清单中专门增设了“地方性许可措施”栏目,以进一步提升清单的完备性。

      “下一步,要在新版清单的基础上,以放宽服务业准入为突破口,通过建立市场准入负面清单动态调整机制,抓紧清理修改不符合新发展理念、不利于高质量发展的市场准入规定,推动各领域市场准入限制进一步放宽,不断缩减清单事项,加快构建市场开放公平、规范有序,企业自主决策、平等竞争,政府权责清晰、监管有力的市场准入管理新体制。”徐善长说。

     原标题:我国全面实施市场准入负面清单制度 真正实现“非禁即入”

     值班主任:李欢

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Similarly, in the current economic conference, the government faced the difficulties of domestic and foreign troubles directly, strengthened a series of policy means, and solved the problems pertinently. 在过去的18年中,整个风险投资行业已经深深地影响了。在过去19年的经济预期仍处于低潮,和行业机构需要提前准备。由于萎缩的估值,从长期来看,这一时期也是优质的项目一个很好的出发时间,这就考验投资者的专业性。我们坚信,创投行业将变得更健康后,经历了艰难的时期。第四象限(信用象限)-商品住宅库存继续下降。集体土地不再是“必须为国有”。根据统计局的数据显示,从一月至十一月,全国房地产开发投资11兆83亿元,比去年同期增长9.7%,与增长率在一月至十月同。其中,住宅投资7兆8027亿元,同比增长13.6%,而增长率下降了0.1个百分点。对房地产开发投资70.9%住宅投资账户。In terms of sales, from January to November, the sales area of commercial housing was 1486.04 million square meters, up 1.4% year-on-year, and the growth rate dropped 0.8 percentage points compared with January to October. The sales volume of commercial housing was 1295.08 billion yuan, up 12.1%, and the growth rate dropped 0.4 percentage points. In terms of inventory, at the end of November, the area for sale of commercial housing was 526.27 million square meters, which was 1.62 million square meters less than that at the end of October. 从统计局公布的宏观数据,可以看出,房地产市场十一月维持稳步的发展,但是从最新的二手房价格数据,近70%的全国城市房价继续恢复几个月的势头,这足以证明国内住房市场T有大幅降温调控背景下。与以前不同的是,在第三、第四线城市已显着扩大最近房价的下降,这意味着赶上第一和第二层下降。这晚的下降就不难解释。首先,这是周期性旋转的结果。首先,当一线城市的崛起,他们带头,然后第二,第三和第四线城市跟进,反过来,他们跌倒时,有一种自然的秩序;另一方面,调控政策收紧。The earliest regulation of the first-tier cities began in the "930 New Deal" in 2016. So far, the short-term restrictions are still firmly pressed on the property market in the northern upper and deeper regions, while the third and fourth-tier cities only introduced part of the regulation policies in the second half of this year, so the impact of regulation on housing prices in the region was revealed. At the end of 2018, China's land system ushered in substantive changes again. 最近,修改新的土地管理办法发布。最有趣的内容可以概括如下:非农建设用地不再是`必须是国有的,工商小产权房将被修正,及相关法律法规的同时,修订。这意味着集体土地不需要经过“国有化”过程中的冗余,但可以直接上市的工业和商业用房建设。这意味着,在地方政府土地市场供给方的垄断有望被打破,和地方政府的财政收入将大大降低。然而,直接加入合适的集体土地进入市场将大大减少工业和商业用地成本,直接受益的房地产企业的发展。然而,这种土地制度改革,同时严格限制实施范围,住宅项目被排除在外,也就是说,集体土地直接进入市场,可以不建的住宅产品,现有住宅的小产权房不能“纠正”。Therefore, the impact of the new land regulations on the housing market is relatively small, and its main impact will be the future industrial and commercial real estate market. Foreign Exchange Plate: The negotiations between the White House and the Federal Reserve went smoothly. The RMB market rose steadily with the mid-price, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. As the U.S. government was in partial shutdown and the White House and the Federal Reserve confronted openly, investors cut exposure to high-risk assets and the dollar fell to a four-month low against the yen. On December 25, the yuan rose steadily against the dollar in early Tuesday morning, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. Overnight USD index was depressed by multiple factors, while Sino-US negotiations continued relatively smoothly, and demand for foreign exchange settlement was partly boosted; however, major global financial markets were closed during Christmas, early market liquidity was lower than before, and the RMB trading range was slightly upward. Whether the Federal Reserve can maintain its independence and fears that the US economy may fall into recession are likely to put pressure on the Dollar bull, which eases the external pressure on the RMB and boosts the market demand for foreign exchange settlement. However, whether China and the United States can reach a trade agreement remains a variable, and it is still difficult for the RMB to appreciate or depreciate substantially, so the idea of interval operation can be maintained in the short term. The dollar fell against the yen and the Swiss Franc on Tuesday as investors cut exposure to risky assets amid a partial halt in the federal government and signs of conflict between white officials and the Federal Reserve. 美国股市星期一下降了2%以上,而石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一的假期驱动的最后一天,在华盛顿的情况,加深了明年的全球经济增长放缓investors'concerns。美国股市波动率指数升至36.1,自2月6日触及50.30简要的最高水平。美国总统特朗普抨击美联储星期一,称它是“唯一的问题”的美国经济。前几天,据报道,特朗普曾讨论解雇美联储主席鲍威尔。当股票市场下跌加剧,美国财政部长Nouchin举行了一次会议,星期一与总统金融市场工作组,俗称暴跌保护小组。但召开这样的会议,通常只在严重的市场动荡的时代,对安抚市场没有影响。这可能削弱投资者的信心,其结果是适得其反。美国总统特朗普和国会的民主党领导人互相指责星期一对美国政府部分关闭并没有采取具体的行动来解决问题的迹象。全球股市大幅下跌以来,十月初在中国和美国之间的贸易争端的担忧,加息和特朗普的减税政策。许多市场被关闭在星期二的圣诞假期,而其他货币交易地。欧元兑美元几乎持平在1.1410美元,上星期一上涨0.33%。商品货币是新的压力,石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一下。中间价人民币兑美元是6.8919元,美国6.9006元今天最后一天。试交易市场观察来源于独家全球资产管理模型和误差的分析与研究。GAM俱乐部简介GAM(全球资产管理)俱乐部依托中金大金融平台的优势,如期货、信托、保险、银行和产业基金,建立投资者与投资者的沟通渠道,得到强有力的支持,许多金融机构和知名大学参与ties, collides with the spark of wisdom, and promotes new financial capital, new technology and new products. 新模型。GAM Club brings together experts from futures, options, stocks, equity, real estate, foreign exchange, bonds, gold and other industries t吉隆坡唐人街_放生关心妍网o discuss investment opportunities and asset allocation trends in the global market, deduce algorithms and models, improve the efficiency of asset allocation and reduce asset management risks. Strategic Trading Department is mainly responsible for global asset management model and strategy research and development, and provides futures brokerage, investment consulting, trading training, fee-paying research and report business. Team members are mainly composed of PhD, Master and Bachelor of Finance, Economics, Mathematics and Computer. The proportion of PhD and Master is more than 60%. Youth, professionalism and high quality are the symbol of the team. 多年来,它一直被评为公司的优秀部门,是中粮期货增长最快的部门。试验和错误的交易受到了广泛的好评,因为它是在2012推出市场,并已经成为行业知名品牌,具有较高知名度和影响力。的scjy专业交易能力的培训课程,这是由多方共同推出,提供从入门到高级专家对实际交易的目的,课程的不同阶段。它致力于培训和交易能力的培养。它已经帮助许多客户提高他们的交易情况,走上职业交易之路。它已经成为期货行业第一培训品牌在人员方面的大小。K线聚类模型和市场结构的图像识别模型的人工智能技术的发展是在期货行业的领先地位,在该领域领先的研究趋势。风险:张耀文期货投资咨询证书号z0013564王俊期货投资咨询证书号z0013699彭书肆投资咨询资格证书z0013758号1。这一战略的观点是基于提供给研究人员的信息,与实际结果可能大不相同由于条件有限。投资者必须独立做出交易决策。本公司不保证交易的结果。2。市场的不确定性,和过去的战略观点一致,不保证当前的战略观点的正确性。公司和其他研究人员可以从这些策略表达了不同的意见。三。在法律允许的范围内,一个公司或附属机构可能涉及的品种进行交易,也可能为其他公司的交易提供服务。责任编辑:吴华张

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